Today is World AIDS Day, a day to celebrate the many lives saved and to remember the many lost to the HIV virus. Importantly it is a day to reflect on what we have learnt from working to address the inequality challenges of the HIV epidemic. This is particularly critical for civil society, and others, working to reverse inequality. I will focus here on 4 lessons:
Lesson one: Inequality kills. Millions have died because they were too poor to pay the exorbitant prices of medicines & hospital fees. Investing in public health systems to offer free service as the point of use and in affordable medicines are essential to save lives and tackle inequality – both health inequalities and crucially, economic inequality.
We must remember that it was civil society movements that put pressure on pharmaceutical companies and created the environment for Indian companies to compete and thus slash the price of HIV medicines from $10,000 to around $ 100/ person /year leading to the over 18 million people on treatment now. Inequality in access to medicines affects millions all over the world. A big cause of this inequality is the global system of biomedical research and pricing, which leaves critical decisions on medicines- basically the decision on who lives and who dies – in the hands of pharmaceutical companies. This system needs re-thinking to ensure availability of the medicines we need at affordable prices.
Therefore, the recommendations of the UN Secretary General high level panel on medicines published just a couple of months ago are a great step in the right direction to ensure that the research and development (R&D) system produces affordable medicines for people who need them. We hope for the UK leadership in implementing these recommendations. We see interdependence between progress on the issue of anti-microbial resistance (on which we have seen magnificent leadership from the UK government) and delivery on the UN panel recommendations to transform the R&D system for accessing medicines.
The second lesson is related to a critical dimension of inequality, which is accessing health services. A big lesson from HIV is that its services are fundamentally free and thus saving the lives of the 18 million people who are on treatment. This must extend to all health services. Paying for health care pushes 100 million people into poverty each year. One billion people are denied health care because they can’t afford to pay. Health services free at the point of use are critical to prevent this situation and to enable people to stay healthy and productive – thus improving livelihoods and economic growth. Women bear the brunt of paying for health care as they have to care for sick family members and they are the last to access paying services. Recently the UN statistical group mandated to frame the indicators to measure the Sustainable Development Goals, agreed on the indicator that measures the financial protection arm of Universal Health Coverage. The indicator 3.8.2 will measure what really matters: the out of pocket expenditure on healthcare. Again, civil society has been instrumental in establishing this indicator.
ِِِِAccess to HIV treatment could not happen without securing adequate financing. This is the third lesson. Thanks to domestic and donors funding like the Global Fund, poor and marginalised people can access the services.
Building resilient health systems that provide services needed for HIV, other diseases including non communicable diseases and emerging infections, requires adequate and sustainable financing. Public financing is critical – there is now consensus across the global health community that all governments must push forward urgently on achieving universal health coverage. At the core of the consensus is an understanding that an increase in public financing for health is a non negotiable ingredient for success.
Oxfam campaigns on tax reforms as a fundamental solution to raising additional needed revenue and at the same time redressing extreme economic inequality. However, few low and lower middle income countries have sufficient resources, even with significant tax reform, to pay for health care for all. Aid should be provided in the right way – supporting the expansion and improvement of public health systems, the removal of fees and the scale up of the health work force
It’s a worrying trend that the marginalised and vulnerable in middle income countries are being left behind as a direct result of the trend of withdrawing development assistance from these countries. This is clearly illustrated in the negative impact on HIV programmes that is supporting marginalised groups and civil society advocacy. Donors have a responsibility to transform their support in a way that addresses the needs of marginalised groups.
Last but not least, active citizenship – people’ involvement in decision making has been a great driving force to overcome discrimination and the marginalisation of women, sexual minorities and other marginalised groups. This is at the heart of the success in the response to HIV and is at the heart of our inequality campaign
These four factors require the world to make long term commitments to investment in R&D, in free public services and in enabling community and civil society participation in decision making and in monitoring the commitments of governments, donors and international agencies. This is critical if the world leaders are serious about leaving no one behind.
We are delighted to announce a victory for the drive for universal health coverage. We will now be able to count the cost of paying for healthcare for households around the world. It is truly exciting that in a couple of years we could have sound global data on what kinds of health financing mechanisms are most effective for leaving no one behind in healthcare. Armed with this, we can call for policy changes to achieve more equity in health and prevent the 100 million people currently being pushed into poverty each year paying for health care.
Today, the group of experts tasked with developing the indicator framework to measure progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), have agreed to measure financial risk protection of universal health coverage by ‘’proportion of the population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income”. This signals a great shift in from the previous dangerous indicator that would just measure population with access to health insurance or a public health system.
The previous indicator was flawed because it did not measure whether or not people were actually financially protected against potentially catastrophic costs for health care. It would have also failed to measure progress across different income groups or by gender. It was also dangerous as it sent a signal to governments around the world that health insurance was the route to achieving Universal Health Coverage despite robust and scientific evidence that many voluntary health insurance schemes have exacerbated inequality.
A global campaign was mobilized to replace the dangerous indicator with one which ‘measures what matters’.
In a campaign largely coordinated by Oxfam, civil society organisations, academics, development agencies and statistical authorities expressed their deep concerns with letters, lobbying and public statements. Now we can celebrate a step closer to universal health coverage that leads to everyone accessing the quality health services they need without being pushed, or pushed further, into poverty.
In March this year we posted a blog on global health check about a dangerous and surprising last minute change to the indicator measuring financial risk protection for Universal Health Coverage (UHC), being developed by the Inter-Agency Expert Group on the Sustainable Development Goals (IAEG-SDGs). The IAEG is meeting in Geneva this week and aims to conclude discussions on this indicator (3.8.2), along with some of the other contentious indicators they have identified within the SDGs global indicator framework.
Since we reported on the danger of the nonsensical indicator undermining the highly valued SDG target on achieving UHC (that gives everyone access to quality health services, without causing impoverishment), the global health community has mobilized in large numbers to call for the reinstatement of the original indicator or a revised version of it, as proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and World Bank (WB). Here are a few highlights of the actions from a range of constituent communities with a stake in this issue over the past few months:
The motivation for all this is to warn against keeping the current indicator whether on its own or in combination with the WHO/WB refined indicator. The current – flawed – indicator to measure financial risk protection for UHC reads:
‘coverage by health insurance or a public health system per 1,000 population‘.
The reasons this is not fit for purpose are manifold:
As an illustration of these flaws see the stories of Ranu and Esther.
Thankfully the IAEG is considering the alternative WHO/WB proposed indicator – one that is based on a global consensus following extensive consultation over a 3 year period. This alternative reads:
“Proportion of the population with large household expenditures on health, as a total share of household expenditure or consumption.”
This is relevant to the UHC target, as it directly measures the financial impact on households of the costs of health services. It is methodologically sound and grounded in an internationally agreed standard definition which is scientifically robust and policy neutral. Information and data is readily available from routine household surveys conducted by national statistical offices (e.g. Budget Surveys, Income and Expenditure Surveys, Living Standards Measurement Surveys) to support calculations. Furthermore, it is amenable to disaggregation on income, gender and geographical location.
A risk remains that in an attempt to reach agreement the IAEG members will include the WHO/WB proposed indicator as an addition rather than replacement to the flawed indicator. This is unacceptable for all the reasons above but also because countries are already straining with the weight of the SDG measurement framework and it would be a waste of their precious resources. Any data issued by governments using this indicator as a measure will be useless and thus easily ignored by health and statistical experts such as the 351 signatories who signed the health academics letter, the 100s of NGOs who’ve signed letters on this, and the 22 statistical authorities who submitted to the online submission. It would work to counter the hard won global consensus and huge momentum on UHC. And the losers would be all those currently left behind by their own national health systems – those like Raju and Esther who face the stark consequences of paying out of pocket for their health care.
To avoid this danger, the current indicator must be taken off the table completely. Instead of keeping this wasteful indicator, let’s measure what really matters: the impact of health spending on households.
In September 2015, all countries committed themselves to a new set of sustainable development goals (SDGs). One of the targets to achieve the health SDG is Universal Health Coverage (UHC), whereby everybody receives the health services they need without suffering financial hardship[i]. Across the world, countries are recognizing that achieving UHC requires a publicly financed health system to ensure risk pooling where healthy and wealthy members of society subsidize services for the sick and the poor[ii]. Conversely, a privately-financed, free market in health services has proven that it will never achieve UHC – a fact which has now been recognized by experts and agencies who previously promoted private health financing[iii].
Countries such as Thailand, Sri Lanka and Costa Rica have demonstrated that the key to achieving UHC is to replace private voluntary health financing (user fees and private insurance) with compulsory public financing (in particular tax financing). This not only improves people’s access to health services it also reduces the impoverishing burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure[iv].
A country which learnt this lesson before many of its peers is Malawi. Despite only having a GDP per capita of around $350, Malawi was one of the few African countries to achieve MDG 4 in reducing child mortality. This achievement was celebrated in a Lancet Global Health paper[v] which highlighted Malawi’s success in increasing the utilization of a number of effective health interventions by children– for example immunizations and treatments for infectious diseases.
However, this analysis didn’t mention a key feature of Malawi’s health system which has made it unique within the continent of Africa: Malawi has been the only country in Sub-Saharan Africa to provide universal free health services throughout its public health system and never charge user fees – with the exception of some recent worrying user fee experiments I have written about here. Having not put in place this demand side barrier, utilization of services has been higher in Malawi which has enabled the country to make faster progress towards the MDGs and UHC[vi].
This is illustrated vividly in the following graph, from WHO Afro Region. The graph illustrates that with a relatively high level of public financing of 5.8% GDP (which includes aid financing) and a no user-fees policy in place in public facilities, Malawi records only a 12% share of total health expenditure in the form of out-of-pocket financing. This is a good proxy measure for the level of financial protection offered by the Malawian health system and it is at a level significantly below the 20% maximum level recommended by WHO.
Conversely in Nigeria, which only spends 0.9% of its GDP in the form of public health financing and where user fees are charged at all levels, private out-of-pocket health financing accounts for 72% of total health expenditure – one of the highest rates in the world. At these levels of OOP payments not only are millions of Nigerians being impoverished by health care costs or prevented from accessing vital healthcare altogether, considerable human rights violations are also resulting where many people are detained in health units because they can’t pay their hospital bills[vii]. This latter phenomenon is unheard of in Malawian public hospitals.
But perhaps the most stark illustration of the difference in performance between these two countries at the opposite ends of this curve, is that whereas Nigeria is 8 times richer than Malawi, Nigeria’s child mortality rate (109 deaths per 1000 live births) is 70% higher than Malawi ’s (64 deaths).
In reviewing these records, the obvious policy recommendation for Nigeria is that it too should increase its public health spending and abolish user fees in its public health system. And for Malawi, the lesson should be to build on this success and use further increases in public financing to improve the availability and quality of free services.
The Government of Malawi’s recent policy announcement to implement service level agreements which will fund selected CHAM facilities to provide free services will be an excellent way to fulfill this objective. Needless to say, if Malawi wants to stay ahead of the pack, it should scrap the hospital bypass fees that have been introduced recently, and certainly ignore the siren calls to introduce user fees more broadly in the public health system. This would simply take the country up the curve to join those where poor people don’t access health services because they can’t afford them, and where more children die before their fifth birthday.
 And a very brief period in 1964, when a misguided expatriate advisor persuaded the government to introduce fees. However, following extensive public demonstrations President Banda soon reversed this policy to restore universal free services
 Christian Health Association of Malawi
[ii] Yates R Universal Health Coverage: progressive taxes are key
The Lancet , Volume 386 , Issue 9990 , 227 – 229 Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)60868-6/abstract accessed 28 July 2016
[iii] Lane R 2013 Dean Jamison – Putting economics at the heart of global health The Lancet Vol. 382, No. 9908 Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62613-6/fulltext?rss=yes Accesed 28 July 2016
[iv] Evans TG et al Thailand’s Universal Coverage Scheme: Achievements and Challenges. An independent assessment of the first 10 years (2001-2010). Nonthaburi, Thailand: Health Insurance System
[v] Kanyuka, Mercy et al. Malawi and Millennium Development Goal 4: a Countdown to 2015 country case study The Lancet Global Health , Volume 4 , Issue 3 , e201 – e214 Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(15)00294-6/abstract Accessed 28 July 2016
[vi] Yates R, Child mortality in Malawi The Lancet Global Health , Volume 4 , Issue 7 , e444 Available at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(16)30083-3/abstract Accessed 28 July 2016
[vii] Agbonkhese J FG urged to end detention of women in hospitals nationwide Vanguard online 2 February 2015 Available at http://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/02/fg-urged-end-detention-women-hospitals-nationwide/ Accessed 28 July 2016
The Ebola outbreak has shocked the entire world of global health. Even while Ebola lingers in West Africa the future of health security and the organisation of health systems are being debated.
There have been many conferences held and reports published to provide “lessons learned from the Ebola crisis. A thread running through all of these events has been an agreement on the need to build resilient health systems. Yet building such a system requires planning, investment and serious long term commitment. Short term investment does not produce the necessary workforce needed for a functioning health system. Dhillon and Yates identified 5 key areas that require immediate attention in order to rebuild health systems: community based systems; access to generic medicines; restoring preventive measures; integrating surveillance into health systems and strengthening management.
An Oxfam paper identifies six critical foundations for resilient health systems. I can visualise these foundations as a chair with 4 legs. If you keep one leg short and invest in another leg, the balance is tipped and the chair falls. Meantime if you ignore the base or the back of the chair, it moves from the seating area to the recycling bin!
An adequate number of trained health workers, including non-clinical staff and Community Health Workers (CHWs)
The urgency of allocating resources over a ten year period cannot be better expressed than by Bernadette Samura, a health worker from Pamaronkoh, Sierra Leone:
“Because many nurses have died, it is time for the government now to train more nurses’.
Based on the WHO’s minimum standards of 2.3 doctors, nurses and midwives /10,000 people, Oxfam calculated the gap in these workers and the cost of training and paying them. Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau require $420m to train 9,020 medical doctors and 37,059 nurses and midwives. Once they were trained, a total of $297m annually would be needed to pay their salaries for 10 years. It is worth remembering that at the height of the outbreak, all humanitarian agencies were desperately seeking program managers, logisticians, financial officers, epidemiologists, community mobilizers, and others in addition to clinical staff. Yet these cadres hardly feature in global talks or statistics about the necessary composition of an adequate health workforce.
The lack of vaccines and medicines for Ebola shone a spotlight on the failure of the global research and development (R&D) system. The current system relies on monopoly created by intellectual property rules which leads to pharmaceutical companies conducting R&D in diseases that are expected to produce high profits. In order to get the balance in favour of public health, the public sector has to have a hold over sitting the health priorities and financing of R&D.
The Ebola outbreak highlighted the critical role of HIS in disease control. However, surveillance, which is now being highlighted as critical to disease control, needs to be an integral (not parallel) part of HIS and the overall health system. Epidemiologists alone will not be able to produce useful and reliable data. Effective surveillance requires doctors and nurses to diagnose the diseases, and community workers who gain community trust to report cases. All these workers are needed to act appropriately in their respective roles to prevent the spread of and treat those affected by these diseases.
There are 0.8 hospital beds per 10,000 people in Liberia and 0.3 in Guinea compared to an average of 50 beds in OECD Countries. Scaling up the number of well-equipped health posts and district hospitals, especially in underserved areas, is critical not only to address health needs but also to build community trust in health systems.
Countries’ experience clearly indicates that long term sustainable, reliable and equitable financing has to be based on public financing. The annual funding gap that must be covered in order to achieve universal primary health care is approximately $419m for Sierra Leone, $279m for Liberia, $882m for Guinea and $132m for Guinea-Bissau. Although the sums specified are large it is possible to raise the necessary resources by relying on various forms of tax funding, innovative financing and donors’ support. For example, in 2012, tax incentives awarded to six foreign companies in Sierra Leone were estimated to be worth eight times the national health budget.
Evidence shows that countries that achieved or made progress to achieve UHC relied on a strong public sector. Relying on private provision risks creating a two tier system, whereby poor people pay for a dubious quality of service from drug peddlers and others, while wealthy people enjoy the services of 5-star hospitals.
Building resilient systems that protect people’s health and deal with outbreaks has to address all the six elements of the system simultaneously and systematically. Achieving better health outcomes for all and protecting the world from emerging diseases requires a long term global commitment for building health systems. This must start now.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Calculated from the estimated figure to reach UHC (the agreed $86/person per year multiplied by the population number) and the current public spending on health